Liquid Cooling Charging Technology Resolves Charging Anxiety


As the push for vehicle electrification continues, the use of rechargeable and recyclable power batteries as the main energy source for automobiles has become a focal point in the industry. However, in the market application of electric vehicles, the relatively longer charging and energy replenishment time compared to traditional fuel-powered cars, coupled with issues such as the energy density of power batteries, have resulted in less than ideal pure electric driving range, bringing about range anxiety and charging anxiety for users.

In response to this backdrop, automotive companies and relevant suppliers have embarked on multifaceted explorations and introduced implementation plans that correspond to the current phase of automotive development. Summarily, these efforts can be divided into two stages. Firstly, under the current technological landscape, increasing the capacity of the power batteries integrated into the vehicles has been proposed to address the issue of insufficient pure electric driving range, an approach characterized by a short cycle period and rapid market applicability.

However, as the capacity of the power batteries increases, while the vehicle’s driving range improves, it also directly leads to extended charging times, exacerbating the issue of charging anxiety. For new energy vehicles, the convenience of charging and the duration of energy replenishment have become essential factors influencing their rapid development. Therefore, in addressing charging anxiety and promoting the penetration of new energy vehicles, the industry has adopted a largely uniform approach—applying fast-charging methods to replenish the vehicle’s energy and thereby shorten the charging time.

Liquid Cooling Charging Technology

With the widespread adoption of fast-charging technology, high-power charging is becoming mainstream. During charging, there is a strong electric current which means the amount of heat generated by the charging pile far exceeds the levels observed in the current charging status. To meet the increased demands of whole-vehicle charging at higher power levels, the cables and connectors of the charging pile will become heavier and more robust.

However, these excessively heavy charging guns and cables are not user-friendly, especially for users with limited physical capabilities. The cooling modules, as the core units of charging piles, typically employ forced air cooling. However, with the continuous increase in charging power, the air cooling approach poses issues such as uneven heat dissipation, poor cooling efficiency, high noise levels, and safety hazards.

liquid cooling

To adapt to industry and market developments, charging piles as a foundational infrastructure for new energy vehicles are undergoing technological innovations. Heat dissipation within the overall charging pile assembly is a major factor influencing its performance.

Therefore, effectively addressing heat management during the operational lifespan of the product will be one of the primary directions for its transformation. In scenarios where forced air cooling cannot meet the demands of high-power charging, liquid cooling has emerged as the current mainstream development direction due to its higher heat dissipation efficiency, lower noise levels, and more stable and safe performance.

CCS1 & CCS2 360kw liquid dc fast charging station CCS1 & ccs2 liquid cooling dc charging station

Advantages of Liquid Cooling Charging Technology

In the current application of charging technology, the application of liquid cooling technology at the charging pile terminal is aimed at the cables and charging guns of the charging pile. The liquid cooling system primarily consists of the liquid-cooled charging gun, liquid-cooled cables, cooling fluid, and a liquid cooling pump.

The principle involves arranging dedicated liquid cooling pipelines between the charging cables and the charging gun and introducing commonly used cooling mediums such as water, water-glycol solutions, air conditioning refrigerants, or silicone oil into the system. Through the drive of the liquid cooling pump, the cooling fluid circulates within the pipeline, thereby carrying away the heat and achieving heat dissipation for the system.

The cooling system for high-power charging connectors is generally situated within the interior of the charging pile. However, due to space limitations within the charging pile, efforts are made to minimize the volume of the cooling system to save space and costs. For equipment with high heat flux density, liquid cooling systems offer higher heat exchange efficiency. Compared to air cooling systems, liquid cooling systems not only reduce the volume of heat exchange equipment but also enable temperature control.

liquid cooling connector -phonix

Traditional air-cooled fast-charging piles dissipate heat by thickening the cables, resulting in excessively large and cumbersome charging piles. In contrast, charging piles utilizing liquid cooling technology circulate the cooling fluid through electronic pumps, allowing the cooling fluid to flow between the liquid-cooled cables, the coolant reservoir, and the radiator, thus achieving effective heat dissipation.

Consequently, despite having thinner cables, charging piles with liquid cooling technology are safer. This is why ultra-fast charging piles, despite having a power of up to 600kW, use thinner cables.

So the adoption of liquid cooling technology in charging piles significantly enhances the heat dissipation efficiency of the equipment, thereby improving the charging efficiency and stability while extending the equipment’s lifespan.

CCS1 & ccs2 dc charging station liquid cooling CCS1 &CCS2 LIQUID COOLED dc charger

Liquid-cooled charging guns and cables represent the second core component of liquid-cooled charging pile assemblies. In the context of high-power charging demands, the use of liquid cooling technology significantly reduces the cross-sectional area and total weight of charging cables, making the product more flexible and convenient. Statistics indicate that the weight of the charging cables and charging guns under liquid cooling technology has been reduced by 40% to 50%.

Additionally, precise and controllable temperature management, enhances the stability of charging currents, ensuring that under high power demands, the strong currents do not exceed temperature limits, thereby improving the safety of the system.

Take Tesla for example, its V3 liquid-cooled supercharging piles, with a peak power of 250kW introduced in 2019, saw the charging cable diameter reduced from the original 36.3mm to 23.87mm compared to the previous V2 supercharging piles.

With the promotion of fast-charging technology in the automotive industry, the criticality of liquid cooling technology in charging piles will become even more prominent. Approximately 20% of the value in the overall cost of liquid-cooled charging guns and cables might witness further enhancement.

Safety of Liquid Cooling Charging Technology

Due to the fact that the installation and usage environment of charging piles might encounter some extreme factors, the application of cooling fluids is crucial for the efficacy of liquid cooling systems. Once a cooling fluid leak occurs, it can lead to system failure, posing safety risks.

Thus, considering safety and other aspects, the requirements for the use of liquid cooling technology in charging piles in terms of IP ratings, corrosion resistance, and tolerance for high and low temperatures are higher compared to traditional air cooling.

Furthermore, as the core of the charging pile, the charging module currently has an independent cooling system primarily employing air cooling methods. However, with the drive towards fast-charging technology and system integration, the use of liquid cooling technology enables the charging module to be completely sealed, isolating it from environmental impurities such as dust, flammable and explosive gases, resulting in higher safety, better performance, and improved efficiency and lifespan of the product.


In summary, within the context of the promotion of fast-charging technology in the automotive industry, in addition to technological transformations related to the vehicle side, the development of the charging pile in terms of the heat management system is heading towards greater reliability and efficiency. Liquid cooling technology is set to be an ideal choice in the current and foreseeable future.

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